By Tarek Kamal Abdalla Waly
A entire and detailed study at the scaling capability of calcium carbonate in seawater opposite osmosis structures (SWRO), this book provides a brand new process for calculating the measure of supersaturation and the pH of the SWRO structures concentrates with the help of the feed-water pH and the inorganic carbon elements. in addition, the publication highlights the weak point within the current supersaturation indices and membrane brands courses. ultimately, the learn recommended that SWRO focus is far reduce undersaturated with admire to calcium carbonate than formerly concept. This used to be proven by means of finished pilot trying out the place acids and antiscalants used to avoid calcium carbonate scaling have been thoroughly eradicated from the pilot plant.
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Minimizing the Use of Chemicals to Control Scaling in Sea Water Reverse Osmosis: Improved Prediction of the Scaling Potential of Calcium Carbonate: UNESCO-IHE PhD Thesis by Tarek Kamal Abdalla Waly